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Git is a Distributed Version Control System. Most VCSs you know (like CVS, Subversion, Clearcase, Perforce, and VSS) are centralised. A Distributed VCS allows you to make frequent, local, commits to checkpoint your work while you're still perfecting the code -- you cannot do this with a centralised VCS.
These are my notes about git. I started writing them for my own understanding, almost like cheat sheets, but they may be useful for others also.
Why is git so popular? If you're just curious, but not curious enough to dig in like a developer, maybe this article, which I wrote in 2008, will help.
What is git?
If you want to understand git, we have slideshows.
In the "git usage" page you will find various tips and traps, information for command line and GUI users, Windows users, running a git server, plus a quick set of hints for people familiar with traditional VCSs like SVN and CVS.
These links show up several times a day on #git (the git channel on IRC)
A whole bunch of other articles on git
Git and DVCS terminology
There are also some older articles and write-ups that may still be relevant and useful, but I have not revisited them for a while now. Caveat reader!